Saturday, April 3, 2010

Haakon to Hywel in Royal Monicker

HAAKON I OF NORWAY (c920-961).
King of Norway, 934-961
Haakon Adalsteinfostre (Raised by Athelstan)
Haco the Good
the Good
"...The nickname Adalsteinsfostrifoster-son of Aethelstan, which was later attached to Hakon, son of Harald Fairhair, a king of Norway, has been interpreted as supporting the claim in the sagas that Hako had been converted to Christianity at King Aethelstan's court...."  (Harper-Bill, p. 20)

"We have told how King Haakon succeeded his brother, Erik Blood-Axe, on the throne, and how, from his kindly and gentle nature, people called him Haakon  the Good.  There were other sons and several grandsons of Harold the Fair-Haired in the kingdom, but the new king treated them with friendliness and let them rule as minor kings under him.  He dealt with the peasants also in the same kindly spirit, giving them back their lands and relieving them of the tax which Harold had laid...  Harold made other wise laws, in which he took the advice of the ablest men of the kingdom."  (Morris, p. 57)

"...Haco's countenance was beautiful, his person robust, his mind disciplined, his manners popular. He was received with joy. The chiefs and people deserted Eric, and Haco was chosen king in his stead. His conduct and laws displayed the benefit he had received from the superior civilization of the court of Athelstan. He was rewarded for a virtuous reign, by a permanent and invaluable epithet. Though ten centuries divide him from us, his title still survives—'Haco the Good.'..."  (Turner, p. 128)

"...His untimely fate was deeply and universally lamented;  and the epithet of the Good,  by which his contemporaries designated him, has been confirmed by the judgment of a milder and more enlightened age.  His memory was celebrated in the songs of the skalds, and especially in a lay called the Hakonar-mal, composed by the celebrated poet Eyvind Skaldaspiller, where the two nymphs of war, Skogul and Gondul, conduct the pious king in triumph into the heaven of Odin, there 'to quaff ale with the gods in the happy society of heroes.'"  (Crichton, p. 142)

HAAKON II OF NORWAY (1147-1162).
King of Norway, 1157-1162
Haakon Sigurdsson
the Broad-Shouldered
(Haakon Herdebrei)
the Great
HAAKON IV OF NORWAY (1204-1263).
King of Norway, 1217-1263
Haakon Sleepy
the Elderthe Old
"...It became the fashion at his court to ridicule the king as a cowardly busybody who only talked, but lacked the heart to strike.  The Varlbegs---thus the partisans of the duke were called---invented for him the nickname, Haakon Sleepy.  His reluctance to assume the responsibility for civil war, they mistook for fear, and his conscientiousness for pusillanimity."  (Boyesen, p. 423)

the Long-Legged

the Imperious

Raised by ToreToresfostre)

the Red

the Youngthe Younger

the Mighty (Mikli) 
the Greenlander (Grenske)

King of Granada

the Hound
"...A trustworthy follower of this tyrant, in the possession of the castle, was Hadmar von Kuenring, who, with his brother, plied the profession of robbery so successfully and cruelly that they became the terror of the surrounding country, and gained the nickname of 'the Hounds.'  They at leangth ventured to beard th young Duke of Austria, Frederick II, and carried off his great seal and treasury into one of their strongholds, of which they possessed 10, nicknamed by them their 10 fingers...."  (John Murray, p. 193)

HADRIAN (76-138).
Roman Emperor, 117-138
Optimus Princeps
the Adoptive Emperor
the Emperor for My People [4]
the Empire's First Servant (Schiller)
the Greekling
the Happy Emperor
"Emperor for my people.  Hadrian used to say, 'I am emperor not for myself but for my people" (76, 117-138)."  (Brewer)

"...Hadrian was schooled in various subjects particular to young aristocrats of the day, and was so fond of learning Greek literature that he was nicknamedGraeculus ('Greekling')."  (Wikipedia)

"...Hadrian is considered by many historians to have been wise and just: Schiller called him 'the Empire's first servant'...."  (Wikipedia)

White Legs
"...Halfdan Whiteleg, was a great warrio.  He conqured Raumarike inNorway and the great and fertile district called Vestfold, west of the fjord called Folden (now the Christiania Fjord).  He he founded a famous temple in Skiringssal, which soon became a flourishing trading station and a favorite residence of the Norwegian kings...."  (Boyesen, p. 46)

the Bounteous


of the Wide Embrace

King of Orkney

Halfdan (d.877)
King of Dublin
  White Shirt

King of Vestfold
Halfdan the Black
the Swarthy
"In Norway the legendary Halfdan (called the Black because of his hair) reigned over the region of Agder and divided Vestfold with his brother Olaf. The historian Snorri Sturluson wrote that he was a wise man who made laws that he observed himself and made others observe, believing that violence should not replace the laws. He defined many criminal acts and set compensations, fines, and penalties. Halfdan increased his kingdom by conquest and marriage until he drowned when he was forty about 880. Since his son Harald Fairhair was only ten, his mother's brother Guthorm ruled as regent and fought against those attempting to gain independence."  (Beck)

"Godfrey's son was Halfdan the Swarthy.  Halfdan was but a year old in 810 when his father was killed.  At the age of eighteen, he assumed the government of Agder, which he inherited from his maternal grandfather.  By warfare and by marriage he also increased the great possessions he had received from his father, and, was, beyond dispute, the mightiest king in all Norway.  It is told of him that he was a man of great intelligence, who loved justice and truth...."  (Boyesen, pp. 46-47)

Halfdan Eysteinsson
the Bad Entertainer
the Stingy [6] [7]
Halfdan Eysteinsson who "was generous to his men by way of rewarding them with money and land, but, when they were guests at his house, they received rather stingy amounts of food and drink. This could have been due to him encouraging their fitness, or, more likely, that his wife, Hlif Dagsdottir, 748-810, whose name derived from the Old Norse Hilfar, meaning shield, ran an extremely economical household. She was the daughter of Jarl Dag of Vestmar."

the Father of Military Strategy [8]
the Lightning
the Lightning Bolt

6th Count of Corboile

Harald I of Norway (c850-c933)
King of Norway, 872-930 

Slovenly Person 
Ugly Hair
the Lousy 
"Lufa, 'Shock-head', Haraldr's nickname, alluding to his oath not to cut (or, according to Heimskringla, comb) his hair before uniting Norway.  After he succeeded in this, he achieved the nickname harfagri 'Fine-hair.'"  (Finlay, p. 50)

Slovenly Person - "...nickname of Harald, referring to his growth of hair."  (Sturluson & Hollander, p. 75)

"ABOUT the year 890, Harald Haarfagr, son of Halfdan the Black, established his supremacy over the numerous jarls, or princes, who had hitherto divided Norway into so many independent states, and maintained among themselves an almost chronic warfare. He subdued also the vikings of the outlying islands, the Orkneys, the Hebrides, the Shetlands, and even the island of Man. In this great enterprise he seems to have been inspired, as most of us are in all our actions, by mingled motives; by ambition, by patriotism, and by his passionate love for a young and beautiful Norwegian lady, named Githa or Gida, of Hordaland. When in his young and impetuous manhood he sought her hand, she answered him proudly: That it would not become her to wed any one so low and mean as a jarl; that he, like Gorm of Denmark, Erik of Sweden, and Egbert of England, must bring under one firm and equable rule the jarls who quarrelled confusedly around him, and then he might renew his proposal. Harald had the wisdom to see the true patriotism that underlay this lofty reply, and vowed to let his hair grow, and never to cut it or comb it, until he had accomplished the task set by the fair Gida, and merited her love.

"Having, in the course of twelve years, subdued the wild jarls, and laid the foundations of law and order, he proceeded to shear the long tawny locks that, like a lion's mane, hung upon his shoulders, and had gained him the nickname of "Ugly Head," and renewed his suit to Gida. She had no longer any motive for rejecting it, became the brightest queen in all the north, and bore to her stalwart lord five sons and a daughter."  (Adams, p. 18)

Harald II
King of the Isle of Man, 1034–1052
the Black

King of Norway, 961-970
Harald Greycloak
the Graycloak
(Nor. Grafell)

Harald III of Denmark (c1040-1080)
King of Denmark, 1074-1080
Pierre Molle
Harald the Slothful
"...[T]his prince...obtained the surname of Hein (the Gentle)...." (Crichton & Wheaton, p. 198).

"...[W]hen Swein died, many pitched upon our saint, whose eminent virtues best qualified him for the throne;  but the majority, fearing his martial spirit, preferred his eldest natural brother Harald, the seventh king of that name, who, for hi stupidity and vices, was commonly called the Slothful...." (Dunham, p.317)

Harald III of Norway (1015-1066).
King of Norway, 1047-1066
Harald Haardraade
Denmark's Blight
the Hard -Ruler
the Cruel
the Lightning of the North
the Ruthless
the Severe Counsellor
the Tyrant
[Bio1] [Bio2]
"...Traditionally, he is portrayed as a harsh ruler, but there is little historical evidence to support this view. His personality is vividly recorded in the sagas, giving a picture of a gifted man with bold plans. The byname Hardråde (the Ruthless) does not imply criticism. Rather, it points to Harald’s strength of will  and his determination to fully exercise his powers as king."

"He was called Hardrade, that is, the severe counsellor, the tyrant, though the Icelanders never applied this epithet to him." [Saga of Harald Hardrade]

"This is certainly more in keeping with King Harald's familiar nickname, Harald the Ruthless; but the sobriquet Hardradi was never used by the early historians, and it first appeared only in occasional chapter-headings in manuscript copies dating from the thirteenth century."  (Sturluson, et. al., p. 29)

"Not much is known about Harald’s domestic rule. Traditionally, he is portrayed as a harsh ruler, but there is little historical evidence to support this view. His personality is vividly recorded in the sagas, giving a picture of a gifted man with bold plans. The byname Hardråde (the Ruthless) does not imply criticism. Rather, it points to Harald’s strength of will and his determination to fully exercise his powers as king."  (University of Oslo)

"...We have seen that when King Magnus of Norway died in 1047, and gave the kingdom of Denmark to Knud the Great's nephew, Svend Estridsen, he left his Norwegian crown to his uncle Harald.  This prince known in history as Harald Haardraade, and to the Danes of his own and later times as 'Denmark's Blight,' and the 'Lightning of the North,' was by no means satisfied with his nephew's way of disposing of his crowns, and was eager to go to war with Svend almost before the breath was out of King Magnus's body.  But the Norwegians refused to fight for him...and the new king had therefore to content himself with his one crown."  (Otte, p.150)

the Youngthe Younger

King of Norway, 1130-1136
the Servant of Christ

Harald of Denmark (647–735).
HildetandHilditonn (Shining Teeth)

King of Haithabu


Red LipsAgdekonge


the Orator
the Smooth Tongue

the Spear

the Bad

Harold Godwinson
"Harold was called thus in 1066 by William of Normandy after conquering England dethroning Harold." [1]

"On the death of Edward the Confessor, King of England, Harold, from his fleetness surnamed Harefoot, one of the bravest nobles of the realm, assumed the crown, to the exclusion of Edgar Atheling, the lawful heir...."  (Cairns Collection, p. 365)

Hartmann of Kyburg (d.1263)
the Youngthe Younger

Havard ThorfinnssonEarl of Orkney, 976–991
the Harvest Happy 

the Fecund 

the Saint

Heinrich the Younger (der Jungere)
Jack Sausage (Hans Wurst):  "About the time he ws writing this, Luther was publishing one of his fiercest books:  Against Jack sausage (Hans Wurst). The person to whom this sobriquet was applied was Duke Henry II of Brunswick.  Succeeding to the government in 1514, he at once put his brother William in prison and kept him there for ten years.  A little later, with the connivance of the Emperor, he seized Hildesheim.  With his neighbors he lived in constant strife.  When the League of Schmalkalden held its congress at Brunswick in 1538, he refused passage through his territory to the Elector John Frederic and Philip of Hesse, and when the latter passed through notwithstanding, he shot at him with cannon.  He was accused of hiring agents to set fire to building in Saxony and Hesse, by which three hundred men lost their lives.  His private life was also scandalous. Outwardly professing the Catholic religion, he ventured to mock one of its most sacred rites by pretending to have his mistress, Evan von Trott, buried, though for years afterwards he kept her privately in one of his castles."  (Smith, 1968, p. 393)

the Crude 

Helen of the Cross
the Saint [11] 
Beautiful Helena [12] 


la Reine Malheureuse
Queen Mary

Heinrich of Austria (1208–1228).
the Bad, the Godless

the Friendly

Duke of Styria, (1299–1327)
le Paisable

With the Golden Wagon
(Ger. mit dem Goldenen Wagen)

the Singular

the Elder

der Hagere
the Elder

Heinrich of Northeim (d.1101).
the Fat

Heinrich of Reuss (1288–1300).

Heinrich of Reuss (1349–1459).
the Cruel

Heinrich of Reuss (1450–1479).
the Youngthe Younger

Heinrich of Reuss (1595–1635).
the Youngthe Younger  

Heinrich of Reuss-Plauen (1271–1303).
the Oberhofrichter

Heinrich of Reuss-Plauen (1243–1254).
Henry of God's Grace  

the Posthumous

Heinrich of Reuss-Weida (1282–1306).
the Church's-Friend

Heinrich of Reuss-Weida (1306–1348).
the Layman

Heinrich of Reuss-Weida (1348–1360).
the Upholder
the Lion [53]

Margrave of the Nordgau, 994-1004; Margrave of Schweinfurt.
  • Harry:
  • Henry Hezilo:
  • the Glory of Eastern Franconia:
  • the Schweinfurter:  "When Henry of Babenberg, the brave and powerful Margrave of the Northgau on the Bohemian Forest, called by the people Harry, or the Schweinfurter, from his favorite residence at Schweinfurt on the Main, saw himself thus deceived by King Henry and deprived of his promised reward, indignation seized him and the other Franconian temporal lords who had voted for the election of Henry II as king.  In the year 1003 he raised the standard of revolt and found many allies."  (Zimmermann, p. 831)
the Elder

Co-Regent of Hesse, 1284-1298
the Younger

Margrave of Thuringia, 1224-1247; King of Germany, 1246-1247.

  • the Parsons' King:
  • the Priests' King (Lat. Rex Clericorum): "...In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, German king; but the "priests' king", as he was contemptuously called, died in the following year...."  (NNDB)
  • Rex Clericorum:  "...An aspirant to the throne was found in the person of the Thuringian landgrave Henry Raspe, whom the emperor had appointed a few years before as regent of the Empire.  Henry Raspe was elected near Wurzburg in May 1246 to be king of the Romans, or 'Rex Clericorum' as he was mockingly called, since no secular elector was present.  Despote a papal endowment of 25,000 silver marks and further subsidies from the Curia, however, the landgrave was never anointed or crowned.  To Innocent's great chagrin, Henry Raspe inconveniently died a few months later in 1247...."  (Lewis and Paris, p. 266)
the Younger
Margrave of Austria, 994-1018
the Shrew (Ger. der Winderspenstige)
the Strong (Ger. der Starke)

Heinrich I of Austria (1158–1223)
Duke of Modling
the Elder

Count Palatine of the Rhine, 1195–1212
the Tall

the Marvelous
the Peasants' Prince

the Mild 

the Young, the Younger
the Father of His Country 
the Fowler 
the Founder of Chivalry in Germany 
the Iron Duke 
the Romulus of Brandenburg 
the Saint [2] 
the Saxon

Heinrich I of Guelders (1117–1182)
the Young, the Younger 

the Child

the Jerusalem-Farer
the Pilgrim

the Elder

the Smart

the Tall

the Black 

the Honorable
the Righteous
Heinrich of Eilenburg
the Elder
the Elder
Heinrich I of Reuss (1302–c.1331)
the Fast Rider
the Land-Righter
the Marian
Heinrich I of Reuss (1250–1295)
the Orphan
Heinrich I of Reuss (1449–1475)
the Pilgrim 

Heinrich I of Reuss (1316–1373)
the Tall
Heinrich I of Reuss (1475–1502)
the Well-Appointed
the City's Friend
the Empowerer
the Elder
Heinrich I of Reuss-Plauen (1303–c.1340)
the Cunning
the Injured
the Unforgettable
the Upright
Heinrich I of Reuss-Weida (c.1206–1225)
the Cloister-Founder
the Bald
the Bold [3]
Vianden Castle
Henry I of Vianden (1220-1250) " known as the Sun Count for it is during his tenure that the holdings, lifestyle and influence of the House of Vianden reached its zenith...."

Heinrich I of Vianden (1210–1252).
the Sun Count
the Sun King [4]

Heinrich II of Anhalt (1215-1266)
Prince of Anhalt-Aschersleben, 1252-1266
the Fat (Ger. der Fette):  "...Henry, duke of Anhalt, who died in the year 1267, and was surnamed the fat, from his corpulency; but displays in his verses an active and alert gallantry."  (Taylor, p.135)


Heinrich II of Austria (1182–1236)
Duke of Modling
the Elder
957–976, 985–995
the Young, the Younger
the Quarrelsome:  "Henry II of Bavaria, incited by Bishop Abraham of Freysing to lay claim on the imperial crown, formed a secret alliance with Harald Bluetooth, King of Denmark, and Micislav of Poland, now for the first becoming a political power in Europe. Fora time fortune inclined to the side of the rebels, but Otho's astuteness circumvented their designs. He marched against Henry, who, on account of this rebellion, was surnamed the Querrelsome, conquered him, and placed him under guard, at Ingelheim...." (Peake, pp. 46-47)

the Greek 

the Quarrelsome

Holy Roman Emperor, 1014-1024
  • Heinrich IV von Bayern:
  • the Hip-shot: "King Henry II was not even in body the man a German king should be.  He was nick-named the 'hip-shot.'  His manner of becoming king was no recommendation. Hitherto the kings had been elected by a general election;  but King Henry II had swung around the circle to obtain the votes of each separate country.  Only by this means did he obtain a general acknowledgment."  (Zimmermann, p. 831)
  • the Holy:
  • the Lame:  "...Henry, who bore the name of 'the Saint,' and against whom no personal objection could be raised had only to show himself with his Germans to rouse the people throughout the country.  His coronation, both at Pavia and at Rome, was the cause of awful scenes of bloodshed and conflagration, in which he ran great personal danger, especially in the former city, where he could only effect his escape by an unlucky leap from a window, which disabled him for life, and added to his appellation of 'the Saint' that of 'the Lame.'"  (Gallenga, pp. 143-144)
  • the Saint [24]:  "Otho III was succeeded as King of Germany by Henry, Duke of Bavaria, who is known as Henry II the Saint; so surnamed on account of his love for the Church and the clergy, as particularly displayed in founding the cathedral and archbishopric of Bamberg...."  (The Unrivaled History of the World., p. 372).  "Although Henry was no less valiant than devout, his piety was deeply tinctured with the fanaticism and superstition of the times in which he lived. It was his custom, whenever he entered a city for the first time, to repair immediately to a church dedicated to the mother of the Saviour, and there to pay his devotions. On one occasion, when visiting the abbey of Verdun, he was seized with such a weariness of soul, such a disgust for the pomps and cares of his position, that he was about to renounce the world and take the habit of a monk. The prior, Richard of Verdun, told him that the first vow required of him would be obedience. The Emperor expressed his readiness to obey; thereupon the prior enjoined him to retain his kingly office and discharge its duties. 'The Emperor,' said he, 'came hither to learn obedience, and he practices this lesson by ruling wisely.'"  (Peake, p. 52-53)
Heinrich II of Holstein (1317–1382)
den Jarnharde, the Iron 


the Young, the Younger

Heinrich II of Hesse

the Iron

Heinrich II of Mecklenburg (1267–1329)

the Rich

Heinrich II of Plauen (d.1302)

the Bohemian [29]

Heinrich II of Reuss (1449–1461)
the Acquirer

the Short
the Pious [5]

Heinrich II of Reuss (1425–1470)
the Heir

Heinrich II of Reuss (1164/65–1209)
Vogt of Weida and Gera
the Rich
Heinrich II of Reuss-Greiz (1572–1583) 
the Tall
the Mighty Advisor
the Red
Heinrich II of Reuss-Plauen (c.1206–1232)
the Field Captain
Heinrich II of Reuss-Unter-Greiz (1572–1583, d.1608)
the Inconstant

the Franciscan

Heinrich II of Reuss-Lobenstein 1500–1547
the Persistent

Heinrich II of Silesia-Podiebrad (1452–1492)
the Younger

Wierny, le Fidele

Henry of Stade [27]


the Younger

the Rich

the Pious

Heinrich III of Limburg (1145–1221)
the Elder

Heinrich III of Meissen
the Illustrious
the Serene

the Russian (Ger. der Reuss)
the Ruthenian [35]

Heinrich III of Reuss 
the Unnamed

Heinrich III of Reuss (d.c.1266).
the Spittler

Heinrich III of Reuss (1337–1378).
the Oat-Taker

the Younger

the Lame

Heinrich III of Silesia (1319–1369).
Zelazny, the Iron

the White

the Elder

the Rich

the Fat

the Younger

Heinrich IV of Silesia (1248/57–1290).
the Wise

the Honorable
the Righteous 
Count of Wildeshausen, 1233–1271
der Bogener
the Rich
the Intermediate
the Pious
the Trustworthy

the Pacific

Heinrich V of Reuss (1583–1604).
the Foreseer

le Fade

Heinrich V of Silesia (1245/50–1296).
the Fat

  • the Cruel:  "...We find amongst the kings of Castile a Pedro the Cruel who died in 1369.  The Emperor Henry VI had received the same epithet in the end of the twelfth century."  (Chambers and Chambers, Vol. 50, p. 536)
  • the Great [44]


the Money Bag

Heinrich VII of Silesia (1343/45–1399)


the Scarred
(Frle Balafre)
With the Scar

the Black
the Younger
Duke of Bavaria (Heinrich X), 1126-1139; Duke of Saxony (Heinrich II), 1137-1139; Margrave of Tuscany, 1137-1139; Duke of Spoletto, 1137-1139
the Proud:  "Guelph II. helped Henry V. to drive Pope Pascal from Rome, and dying childless shortly after, his brother Henry succeeded him in Bavaria. Henry supported the nomination of Lothaire of Supplinburg, and was rewarded by him with the marriage of his daughter and heiress Gertrude to Henry, second son of Duke Henry. The magnificence with which this marriage was celebrated between Gertrude and Henry gave him the surname of Henry the Proud...." (Peake, p. 74)

"...[T]he Duke of Bavaria had no competitor in the empire.  He was Sovereign of Saxony and Bavaria, and Lord of Verona and Spoletto, while (as the nominal vassal of the Pope) he enjoyed the revenues of the whole patrimony of the Countess Matilda.  Had his manners been conciliating, or his conduct yioelding, he might easily have attained to the imperial dignity;  but the surname of the Proud, which he had early obtained, sufficiently marks his character and general demeanour...."  (Halliday, Vol. 1, p. 179)

Heinrich X of Silesia

the Daring

Duke of Bavaria (Heinrich XII), 1156-1180; Duke of Saxony (Heinrich III), 1142-1180
the Lion:  "...As he grew up, he displayed so much courage and fortitude in all his undertakings, that his playfellows gave him the surname of the Lion, which he ever afterwards continued to retain...."  (Halliday, Vol. 1, p. 192)

Lord of Sultz
the Younger

Heinrich XIII of Plauen (1464–1535).
le Silencieux

Heinrich XIII of Weida 
the Knight of the Cloak

the Elder

the Elder  

Heinrich XIV of Weida (d.1389).
the Red

Heinrich XV of Bavaria 
the Natternberger

Heinrich XV of Reuss-Greiz (1535–1564, d.1578). 
the Intermediate

Lord of Weida
the Intermediate

Heinrich XX of Stolberg (1467–1508)
the Younger

Helias of Le Mans
the White Bachelor-Knight (Lat. Candidus Bacularis)
"...Helias was asked to put on the white tunic, which had earned him the nickname of 'candidus bacularis' (or 'the white bachelor-knight'), and received the surrender of the citadel...." (Aird, p. 203)
Prince Henry of the Netherlands
the Navigator

Henri of Burgundy
Donzel  (A young squire or knight's attendant)

HENRI D'ORLEANS, Comte de Chambord, Duc de Bordeaux (1820-1883)
Henri V of France
Henri of Artois
Comte de Chambord
the First Gentleman of Europe
the Miracle Baby
the Miracle Child [14]

"...In his youth he was trained in all princely accomplishments. During his early manhood his travels were extensive, and in whatever country he presented himself he was received with the honors reserved for monarchs. Personally, he proved the advantages to be derived from a kingly lineage of five hundred years. At this period of his life he was a singularly handsome man. In his bearing he was every inch the king. He was distinguished also for possessing many of the princely qualities. His bravery, integrity of conscience, his loftiness of sentiment, and the amiable condescension of his manners were counted among his virtues and his charms. The Empress of ll the Russias said of him, 'One feels he is the first gentleman of Europe.'..." (Alden, ed., p. 353)

HENRI DE LORRAINE, Sire de Bayon (d.1249)
the Lombard

HENRI DE LORRAINE, Comte d'Harcourt (1601–1666)

le Cadet a la Perle
 "Henri de Lorraine, Grand Ecuyer, younger son of the Duc d'Elbeuf, by Catherine Henriette, daughter of Henri Quartre and Gabrielle d'Estrees. He bore the sobriquet of 'le Cadet a la Perle,' because he wore in one ear a pearl of great size, and beauty. The Count d'Harcourt died in 1666." (Freer, p. 168)

HENRI DE VAUDEMONT-GUISE, Duc d'Aumale, Duc d'Armagnac, 1607–1666
the Young, the Younger
Henri I of Brabant
the Pious
the Warrior
Henri I of Burgundy
the Great (Fr. le Grande)
"At the period when Hugh Capet acquired the throne, the Duchy was held by Henry, his brother, distinguished in history as Henri le Grand, though, according to the ordinary sense in which this much abused and often mischievous epithet is employed, we cannot discover any appropriateness in the application thereof to him.---Henry was really a good man, a quiet man; never did he give the slightest disturbance to his neighbours, never did he perform a warlike deed, never did he engage in any intrigues, political or amatory, his time and mind being completely engrossed by higher objects. A charter, however, can be quoted in which Hugh Capet bestows upon his brother the title of 'Grand Duke,' but the original is not extant. Possibly, the expression intended to bestow upon Henry a superior constitutional dignity, became colloquially attached to his name." (Palgrave, p. 114)

Henri I of Champagne
the Generous, the Liberal, the Magnanimous

Henri I of Cyprus
the Fat, the Corpulent 
 "...King Henry, who was indolent and immensely fat, seldom stirred from his kingdom of Cyprus, leaving the mainland kingdom (i.e., Jerusalem) to govern itself." "In the earlier years of his reign Henry was too young to play an active role; even later on he never seems to have assumed a commanding position.... Yet he was a singularly colorless figure. (Author) Hill, noting the Joinville does not even mention Henry, has suggested that the 'corpulence, which won for him the nickname of the Fat, may have been connected with mental lethargy."

HENRI I, King of France (1008-1060)
the Battler
 "One must avoid being too dismissive of Kings Henry and Philip. They certainly kept alive and viable both the monarchy and the Capetian dynasty which Hugh Capet and Robert II had established in the late tenth and early eleventh centuries. They thus made possible the great advances in royal power and royal governmental institutions in the twelfth century... And the modern historian must be careful not to let the absence of a contemporary biographer -- such as both Robert II and Louis VI had -- make one discount the kings in between who did not have one. The nickname of 'The Battler' which the Miracula Sancti Benedicti gave Henry does not make up for the lack of biography...." (Luscombe and Riley-Smith, p. 121)

HENRI I DE GUISE, Duc de Guise, Prince de Joinville, Comte d'Eu (1550-1588), 

  • the People's King:  "...Henri de Lorraine..., 3rd duc de Guise, 1550-88, son of Francois, helped plan the massacre of St. Bartholomew's Day and after 1576 formed the Catholic League. Immensely ambitious and popular [called 'the people's king'], he instigated the revolt of Paris against King Henri III (1588) and took control of the city. After an ostensible conciliation, the kind had him murdered. His brother, Louis de Lorraine, Cardinal de Guise 1555-58, was killed at the same time...." (Le Poulet Gouche)
  • the Scarred (Fr. le Balafre ):  "His (Francois of Guise, Henri's father) face was frightfully scarred by wounds received when fighting against the English in 1546, but it was his son and not himself who received the nickname of 'le Balafre'...." (Fawcett, p. 197). "...[T]he strong, brilliant Henry, Duke of Guise, [was] the son of the warrior who took Calais. Courtly, eloquent, magnetic, Guise was the idol of Paris. He was twice wounded in action, once in the arm, and again in the leg and head. A bullet clipped his ear and scarred his cheek which gave him his nickname, Le Balafre, in spite of which he was considered very handsome. One the cardinals at court remarked of the Guises, father and son, that they made other people seem common by comparison." (McCann, p. 204)

Henri I of Lorraine

Henri I of Milly
the Buffalo

Henri I of Navarre
the Fat

Henri I of Tréguier & Guingamp (1100-1190)
le Trégor, le Goëllo [15] [16]

Henri II of Brabant
the Brave
the Generous, the Liberal, the Magnanimous

the Popinjay
 "...An epithet sometimes given to Henri II of France on account of his foppish manners and his love of dress and display." (Frey, p. 284)

HENRI II DE LORRAINE, Duc de Guise (1614-1664), 
Le Heros de la Fable

Henri II of Louvain
le Ceinturé

Henri II of Montmorency, 4th Duke of Montmorency
la Gloire des Braves
Henri III of France
  • the Coxcomb
  • the Cute
  • the King of Nothing (Fr. le Roi de Rien)
  • "...Surrounded by his mignons, his 'pretty young men', Henry earned from the common people the epithet of the 'New Herod', and from his mother (Catherine de' Medici) 'le Roi de Rien' (The King of Nothing)...."(Davies, 1982, p. 420)
  • the Lovely
  • the Man-Milliner: "This man -milliner, 'weaker than woman and worse than harlot,' whose delight was to invent new fashions in dress, was called in contempt le Mignon (the fribble); and well deserved the denigrading designation." (Brewer, p. 165)
  • the Minion (Fr. le Mignon)::  "...Henri III. of France was called le Mignon, which means pretty well the same thing." (Brewer)
  • the New Herod 
  • the Pretty Face
  • the Prince of Coxcombs
  • the Prince of Sodom:  "...History remembers him as an indolent 'Prince of Sodom, but he was the most intelligent and capable of Catherine's brood. Destined to be the last of the Valois, he nevertheless kept his throne for 15 years in the face of chaos..." (Gauche
Heinri III of Louvain
the Younger
[Bio1] [Pic1]
"In the long history of France, Henry IV has a unique place.  It has been said that he was 'the only king whose memory was cherished by the people.' His subjects remembered him as Henri le Grand, Henri the Great. In physical terms he (like Champlain) was not a large man.  But there was a greatness in his acts and thoughts, a largeness in his energy and resolved, and an astonishing amplitude in both his virtues and his vices.

"...The character of Henri IV appeared in the nicknames that his subjects invented for him. They celebrated him as le roi de coeur, the king of hearts.  Others called him le passionnethe passionate one; or le roi libre, the free king. The literati like to write of him as le vert-galantthe green gallant---vert with its ambiguous connotations of youth, energy, and (in French) promiscuous sexuality; galant in its mixed association with courtesy and inconstancy. These sobriquets referred to Henri' public and private life.  In his many love affairs Henri IV was indeed le roi de coeur, le roi passionne and le roi libre all at once, in a sense that had nothing to do with political theory or public policy.

"...Another nickname, borrowed from his father,w as 'Henri l'ondoyant,Henri the Unsteady...." (Fischer, 2009, pp. 47-48)

Good King Henry, Henri Quartre, Henry of Navarre

"...But the same cannot be said of the monarch whom the French call 'Henri Quartre,' but who is generally known to present-day Englishmen as 'Henry of Navarre,' an appellation which properly belongs only to the earlier part of his strenuous career. Macaulay helped to popularize it, however, and there is perhaps a particular reason why it should have prevailed among us. Broadly speaking, ours is a Protestant country, and 'Henry of Navarre' was the champion of Protestantism; whereas 'Henri Quartre' was a Catholic King." (Alfred, p. 1)

Mon Soldat
Our Henry (Gascon le Nouste Henric)

le Bearnais

"BEARNAIS (Le), Henri IV. of France, so called from his native province, Le Béarn...." (Brewer

the King of Brave Men (Fr. le Rois des Braves)

"...A surname or title given by the troops under his command to Henry IV..., a valiant and successful general."  (Wheeler, 1889, p. 199)

le Vert Galant

"...The frivolity of Henry IV in his private life won for him the nickname Vert galant; the royal mistresses Gabrielle d'Estrées and Henriette d'Entraigues are notorious....." (Goyau)

"The tumultuous private life of Henry IV has become legendary. He fully merited his nickname of Vert Galant. His sexual appetites were insatiable and yet he had no recognized heir as late as 1699, for his mariage to the equally dissolute Marguerite de Valois had been a disaster...."  (Knecht, p. 480

the Father of the People

the Father and Friend of the People

the Gallic Hercules (Fr. Hercule Gaulois)

"The Gallic Hercules- Henri IV, in a propaganda print published in the 1590s. Above the pillars are the arms of France (left) and Navarre (right). Beside these are a scene of Henri's coronation (left) and one of his victorious battles (right). Henri de Navarre was a master of the media -- ready with a bon mot, a moving manifesto, the right mix of authority, humor, and earthiness. The sixteenth century was an age of media explosion, with political pamphlets, tracts, broadsides, books advocating all sorts of ideas, bringing news from far away, and explaining how to do everything." (Newman et. al.

the Gentleman of Gascony (Gascon lou Gentilhome Gascoun)

"In Gascony, and particularly in the Bearnais area around Pau, they think of Good King Henry as one of their own, lou nouste Henric, 'our Henry'. He is also known as lou Gentilhome gascoun, 'the gentleman of Gascony'. In an endearing piece of political spin, Henry said that the rest of France was annexed to Gascony, instead of the other way around." (Calder, pp. 111-112)
the Great

the King of Brave Men
the Monk of Montmartre
the People's King

Henri IV of Luxemburg
the Blind

Henri V of Luxembourg
the Blonde, the Great

Henri VI of Luxemburg, Count of Luxemburg, 1281–1288
the Condemned

Henrique of Portugal
the Chaste

Henrique of Portugal
Henry of Evora

Henrique I of Portugal
the Cardinal

the Cardinal-King
[Bio1] [Bio2] [Ref1]

the Father of European Exploration
the Navigator
the Prince of Sagres
"After the enterprise of Ceuta, Henry organised a crusade against Gibraltar, but this was forbidden by King João. He then left the court and went to Sagres, Portugal's Lands End. This place, a promontory on the edge of the open ocean, had an otherworldly reputation, and had been called the Sacred Promontory by Marinus and Ptolomy (from which the name Sagres derives)....

"Here, the legend goes, Prince Henry made his base for sea exploration, making it a centre for cartography, navigation and shipbuilding. The Catalan Jew from Majorca, Jehuda Cresques, son of the cartographer Abraham Cresques, was brought to Sagres to supervise the collation of geographic facts brought back by Henry's explorers, who were encouraged and later required to keep detailed logs of their voyages. Muslims and Arabs, Italians from Genoa and Venice, Germans and Scandinavians came to Sagres. This community developed navigational instruments and such as the quadrant, and new mathematical tables to aid in determining latitude. The local port of Lagos saw the development of a new type of ship, the caravel." (About Prince Henry)

the Protector of the Studies of Portugal

"...[T]he Prince did not confine his expenditure or his patronage to the development of geographical knowledge.  Having already in 1431 purchased residences for the University of Lisbon...he...established the chair of Theology in that University... He ordered that every Christmas-day  twelve silver marks should be given to the lecturer in that science out of the tithes of the island of Madeira. These important services gained for him the honourable designation of Protector of the studies of Portugal, in like manner as the maritime expeditions won for him the epithet of the Navigator." (Major, 1868, p. 313)

Henry of Denmark (d.1134)
grandson of Sweyn II of Denmark
the Limper 

Henry of England, Prince of Wales

Henry of Lancaster3rd Earl of Lancaster and Leicester, 1322 (1281-1345)
Henry Plantagenet

the Gentle Count
the Stage-Player:  "This Earl of Lancaster was the son of Edmund Crouchback and of Blanche of Artois, mother of the Queen of France.  He was a fine-looking man, devout and gracious, and much beloved by the people, who called him the Gentle Count; but Gaveston's nickname for him of the 'stage-player' may not have been unmerited, for he seems to have been over-greedy of popular applause and influence, and to have had much personal ambition...."  (Yonge, p. 480)
Henry of Grosmont1st Duke of Lancaster (1300-1361)
Henry Tort-Col, Henry Wryneck:  "...On this Henry's death in 1345 he was succeeded by a son of the same name, sometimes known as Henry Tort-Col or Wryneck, a very valiant commander in the French wars, whom the king, for his greater honour, advanced to the dignity of a duke...."  (Baynes, p. 255)
the Perfect Gentle Knight:  "Henry of Grosmont, who could have doubled for Chaucer's 'perfect gentle knight' was the greatest nobleman in the kingdom.  Not only was he Duke of Lancaster, but also Earl of Derby, Earl of Leicester, Earl of Lincoln, and Lord of Beaufort and Nogent in France.  Consequently, his landed interests were vast.  He was the greatest of the magnates, an experienced and masterly general, and utterly loyal to the King, who thought very highly of him and treated him as a valued friend.  The Duke was a tall and imposing figure, genial and suave.  He liked the fine things in life:  good food and wine, luxurious and tasteful surroundings, and the robust charms of common women.  Yet he was also temperate, pious and charitable, the founder of many religious houses, churches and hospitals."  (Weir, p. 28)
[Bio1] [Bio2:254-255] [Bio3:153-154]

Henry of St. ClairBaron of Roslin
the Counsellor
the Crusader 

Henry St John1st Viscount Bolingbroke
the Petronius of His Age 

Dirty Harry
GingerGinger Bullet MagnetGinger Tot [102] 
Harry PotheadHarry Potty [103] 
Harry the Hero [104] 
Harry the Hoody [105] 
the Bullet Magnet [106] 
the Happy Prince [107] [108] 
the People's Prince [109] [110] 
the Playboy Prince [111]
the Rebel Prince (el Principe Rebelde[112] 
the Spare [113] 

Henry I SinclairEarl of Orkney
the Holy [22]

King of England, 1100
Duke of Normandy, 1106

Beauclerc (Fine Scholar):
"Henry, the youngest son of the Conqueror, was brave, active, and politic, and had received from his tutor, Lanfranc, a love of learning, which gained for him the surname of Beauclec or Fine Scholar...."  (Wall, p. 37).  

"Rarely could Henry, amidst his vicissitudes, pleasures, and cares, be seen with a book in his hand, yet his few opportunities of privacy and seclusion were always well employed in study.   He is said to have written Aesopean fables in English, first translating them from Greek into Latin.

Gaffer Goodrich:
Gaffer Goodrich, the nickname afterwards given to Beauclerc by the Normans, in scornful mockety, testifies Henry's decided Anglicism and thus add support to an assertion which otherwise might have appeared improbable to the critical archaeologist.  But Henry Beauclerc issued writs and charters in English...  Marie de France, a true poetess in the age of minstrel rhymers...received her literary impulses from Beauclerc.  She acknowledges that King Henry supplied the substance of her Apologues...."  (Palgrave, Vol. 4, pp. 224-225)

"The positive side of Henry's fearful severity was the reputation he acquired as a maintainer of law and order, despite the concessions he made at the beginning of his reign and the rebellions which continued until the end.  He was the 'Lion of Justice', as John of Salisbury and others called him.  Nevertheless even this epithet is double-edged, as it derives from the prophecies of Merlin in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Arthurian history.  The characteristics of this lion, according to the prophecy, do not refer to law and order but to its shaking of the towers of Gaul and the squeezing of gold from the lily and silver from catle.  In other words Henry was identified as the 'Lion of Justice' because he fought the French and extracted money from his subjects...."  (Clanchy, p.53)
Henry II of EnglandKing of England, 1154 (1133-1189)
Henry Fitz-Conqueror, Henry Fitz-Empress:  "...The Normans called him Fitz-Empress, but king Henry proudly styled the boy Fitz-Conqueror, in token of his illustrious descent from the mightiest monarch of the line of Rollo...."  (Strickland & Strickland, p. 13)
Court-mantle, Curtmantel"Henry II made his appearance, at his coronation, with short hair, mustachios, and shaven chin;  he wore a doublet, and short Angevin cloak, which immediately gained for him from his subjects, Norman and English, the sobriquet of Court-mantle...." (Strickland & Strickland, p. 177).  "...When the young duke of the Normans had first appeared in England, his shoulders covered with a little short cape such as was then usually worn in Anjou, the English knights, who since his grandfather's time had been accustomed to wear long cloaks hanging down to the ground, were struck by the novelty of his attire and nicknamed him 'Henry Curtmantel.' When once the Angevin fashion was transferred to the English court, however, there was nothing in Henry's dress to distinguish him from his servants, unless it were its very lack of display and elegance ; his clothing and headgear were of the plainest kind ; and how little care he took of his person was shewn by his rough coarse hands, never gloved except when he went hawking.2 In his later years he was accused of extreme parsimony ;3 even as a young man, he clearly had no pleasure in pomp or luxury of any kind....."  (Norgate, pp.409-410)
the Handsome Scholar
the King of the North Wind:  When Henry II imprisoned Eleanor for her role in the Great Rebellion of 1173, many of her fellow Aquitainians were deeply disturbed.  Richard le Poitevin, a troubadour from Poitou who had probably known the queen since her youth, expresses his outrage below.  Notice that he refers to Eleanor as the 'Eagle with two heads' because she ruled over England, as well as he domain in France.  The royal sons are the 'eaglets,' and he calls Henry the 'king of the North Wind.'"  (Plain, p. 71)

Henry IV of EnglandKing of England, 1399, Lord of Ireland, 1399 (1366-1413)
Bolingbroke:  "...A quarrel between Lancaster's eldest son, the Earl of Hereford, called Bolingbroke from the village where he was born, and the Duke of Borfolk was settled by the exile of both...."  (Wall, p. 72)

Henry V of England

Henry VII of England
Defender of the Faith
the Solomon of England 

the Contentious [58]
Henry VIII of England, King of England, 1509-1547 (1491-1547)
Bluff Hal
Burly King Harry
Defender of the Faith
the Father of English Liberties (Haltsted, p. 412)
the Savour of Christendom:  "Henry VIII from England, was the first to respond to Luther's Theses.  He wrote a rebuttal and sent it to the Pope.  A grateful Pope dubbed Henry 'The Saviour of Christendom."  (Kandiew, p. 52)

Henry Algernon Percy5th Earl of Northumberland
the Magnificent:  Henry Algernon Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland, was famous for the "spledour of his establishment and love of display."
Henry Barry8th Earl of Barrymore
Cripplegate [51]
Henry Beaufort, Cardinal (c1375-1447) [Bio1]
the Good:  Henry Cardinal Beaufort - (Shakespeare: 2 Henry VI., iii. 2.) Called 'Good,' not for his philanthropy, but from his devotion to the Church. He was an out-and-out Catholic." 

the Last of the Stuarts [6] 

Henry Clifford10th Lord of Skipton
the Shepherd Lord [63] [64] 

the Golden Knight [93] 

Henry Dundas1st Viscount Melville 
Starvation Dundas
the Uncrowned King of Scotland [59] [65] 

Henry FitzJames1st Duke of Albemarle
the Great Prior [62] 

King Henry the Ninth [61] 

Henry Percy6th Earl of Northumberland
the Unthrifty 

Henry Temple3rd Viscount Palmerston
Lord Cupid [55] [56] 
Lord Pumicestone [57] 

Henry Percy9th Earl of Northumberland
the Wizard Earl 

Henry de Bohun1st Earl of Hereford
the Surety
the Magna Carta Baron [49] [50] 

Henry de Lacy3rd Earl of Lincoln, 1272-1311 (1249-1311)
Mister Burst-Belly (Fr. Monsieur Boele-Crevee):  "...Unfortunately, Piers had learnt neither tact nor the importance of not alienating the powerful English barons. It was in the period 1309-1311 that he gave them insulting nicknames:...earl of Lincoln 'Mister Burst-Belly' or Monsieur Boele-Crevée...."  (Edward the Second).  "By the spring of 1309 Edward had managed to effect Gaveston's recall from exile, but once again he proved to be troublesome.  According the the chroniclers, Gaveston returned to England as arrogant as ever, and during this period he is alleged to have dubbed his fellow earls with slanderous nicknames:  Lincoln was 'burst-belly'; Thomas, Earl of Lancaster, was 'the fiddler,' 'the actor,' or 'the churl'; Aymer de Valence, earl of Pembroke, was 'Joseph the Jew'; and Guy Beauchamp, Earl of Warwick, was 'the black dof of Arden.'"  (Fritze & Robison, p. 222) 

the Bearded 

the Pious
the Most Beautiful Boy in the World

Heraclius of the Byzantine EmpireByzantine Emperor, 610-641 (575-641)
Flavius Heraclius Augustus
the Creator of Mediaeval Byzantium:  "...The new emperor, Heraclius I (610-641), called by historian George Ostrogorsky 'the creator of Mediaeval Byantium,' launched campaigns,first into Albania (623) and then into Kartli-Iberia (626), and defeated the Iranians...."  (Suny, p.26)

Herbastus de Crepon (911–984)

the Wake Dog (Fr. Eveille-Chien) 

the Barracks Emperor
the Emperor of the Army 

the Exile
the Outlaw
the Wake:  "The last rebellion William faced was led by Hereward the Wake in 1071.  Hereward was regarded as a hero by the Saxons.  As his nickname suggests, he was always awake and ready for any danger, especially as he gathered rebels together in the Fens near Ely...."  (Hilliam, p. 69)

the Fat

Hermann de Hainaut1040–1049
Herman of Mons

the Bismarck of the Thirteenth Century
the Greatest German Statesman of the Middle Ages
"The Order of German Knights of the Hospital of Saint Mary at Jerusalem was but ten years old when Hermann of Salza was elected its fourth grand master in 1209... From this region (Langensalza) Hermann, called 'the Bismarck of the thirteenth century' and 'the greatest German statesman of the Middle Ages,' may well have come."  (Setton, ed., p. 567)
the Warlike 

Pusillus (the Slender)
the Short

Hermann I von Hesse
the Elder
the Blessed

Hermann II von Hesse1376–1413
the Learned 
the Wise

the Great

the Awakener

the Holy
the Saint

Hersende of RameruptCountess of Arcies (d.c.945)
the Pious

Herve III of Leon (d.1264)
the Simple

Herve IV of Leon (d.after 1281)
the Extravagant
the Spendthrift

Hervey II de Keith1st Earl Marshal of Scotland (d.1196)
the Marshal

Hethum of Little ArmeniaLord of Korykos (d.1314)
Lady Cheat'em [68]

Hethum II of Little Armenia (1266–1307)
the Blind

the Berserker of the Family [69]

the Saint

the Blessed [70]

Hlodvir, Lodver13th Jarl of Orkney (924–980)
the Viking

HoamerKing of the Vandals, 477–484 [71]
grandson of Huneric
the Vandal Achilles
the Achilles of the Vandals 
Comte de Mirabeau
the Shakespeare of Eloquence [72]

Horace Walpole4th Earl of Orford
Ultimus Romanorum [73]

the Apostle of the Ardennes
the Saint
Hugh Bigod3rd Earl of Norfolk
the Suretythe Magna Carta Baron [74]

Hugh CourtenayLord Courtenay (c1313-1374)

Hugh Douglas, Lord of Douglas, 1333-1342 (1294-1342)
Hugh the Dull
"...As his byname would imply, Hugh lacked the mental faculties needed to manage the Douglas possessions. For this reason, he renounced his rights."  (Douglas Archives-Hugh the Dull)

Hugh of Tuscany
the Great

Hugh II, Count of Nordgau (945–984)

Hugh III of Dagsburg (945–986)

the Troubadour 
the Minstrel 

the Great 
Hugues d'AvranchesViscount of Avranches, 1st Earl of Chester (1408-1101)
Hugh de Abrincis
the Wolf (LatLupus):  "Styled by his contemporaries 'Lupus', evidently for his rather vicious nature, he received from the King (his maternal uncle), in 1071, the whole of the county palatine of Chester, and thus became Count Palatine as Earl of Chester...  He succeeded his father, who was living as late as 1082, as Vicomte d'Avranches in Normandy. He remained loyal to William II during the rebellion of 1096. After founding the abbeys of St. Sever in Normandy and St. Werburg at Chester, he became a monk at St. Werburg some four days before his death. His son and heir, Richard, also Earl of Chester (died s.p. legit.), was among those nobles who drowned upon the sinking of the White Ship at Barfleur in Nov of 1120. The earldom of Chester passed via Margaret/Maud (sister to Hugh Lupus), to her son Ranulph le Meschin."

"...Earl Hugo de Abrincis, surnamed Lupus, Earl of Chester, the Conqueror's sister's son by Richard Gox, had 24 lordships in this country.  He was a person of great note among the Norman nobility and a very expert soldier, for which reason he was placed so near the unconquered Welsh, to restrain their excursions; and his earldom was given him to hold as free by the sword, as the king held in England by the Crown...."  (Nichols, p. 110)

Hugues de Beaumont1st Earl of Bedford
Hugh de Bellomont
the Pauper [94] 

Hugh le Despenser1st Earl of Winchester
the Elder Despenser

Hugh Dubh O'Neill
Black Hugh

Hugh Fraser, Lord Lovat (1417–1450)
Canède [87]

Hugh O'Neill3rd Earl of Tyrone
the Great Earl 

the Younger Despenser [96]  

Duke of the Franks, 936
the Abbot
the Great
the Wise
the White
"...Hugh, surnamed the Great and Wise, the son and successor of Robert as Count of Paris, was not less powerful than his father had been, though he did not aspire to the regal title...."  (Halliday, p. 147)

"When Charles the Simple was expelled from the throne of France, the sceptre was seized by Raoul, or Rodolph, Duke of Burgundy.  The usurper died without issue, leaving a brother, Hugh, Count of Paris, the most powerful baron of the realm, and called Hugh the Great, on account of the extent of his possessions.  He might easily have seized the vacant throne, but knowing the difficulty of retaining it in those turbulent times, he preferred securing the peaceable possession of Burgundy...."  (Duncan, p. 26)

"...Hugh, 'Hugh-le-Grand,' 'Hugh-le-blanc.' or 'Hugh-l'Abbe;' the first epithet bespeaking his consequence, the second his complexion, and the third, the vast preferments which he held...."  (Palgrave, Vol. 1, p. 406)

Hugues of Burgundy (1260-1288)
Huguenin [81]

Duke of Burgundy, 923
the Black

Hugues of Burgundy (1123-1171)
the Red [93]

Hugues of Burgundy (d.1312).
Archbishop of Besançon
le Sourd

le Champenois

Constable of France
the Blind

the Saint [77] [78]

Hugues of Roucy (d.1160)
Cholet [97]


the Timid
Count of Vermandois, 1085-1101
Hugues de Crepi
the Great
(Lat. Magnus)
the Long 
"Other Latin princes answered the pope's call to arms as well.  Among these, the pre-eminent figure in terms of lineage was Hugh of Vermandois, brother of King Philip I of France, to whom historians have sometimes appended the rather misleading appellation 'Magnus' (the Great).  Hugh was certainly proud of the royal blood flowing through his veins, but the actual physical resources at his command were quite limited.  The small county of Vermandois seems to have furnished him with a relatively meagre fortune, and he managed to attract only a small contingent of followers to join him on crusade."  (Ansbridge, p. 63)

"That same year, Hugh the Great, count de Crepi, entrusted his estates to his sons Ralph and Henry, and giving his daughter in marriage to Robert count de Mellent, undertook the pilgrimage, accompanied by a noble band of of Frenchmen...."  (Delisle, pp. 77-78)

"Hugh the Great, brother of Philip I, king of France, became count of Crepi and Valois by his marriage (about 1068) with Adela, daughter of Herbert IV, count of Vermandois; by which title Hugh is also known." (Delisle, p. 77)

"Among the most conspicuous of Godfrey's colleagues was Hugh count of Vermandois, whose surname of the Great has been ascribed by some to his birth as the brother of Philip I the French king, by others merely to his stature, as 'Hugh the long.'..."  (Cox, p. 42)
King of France, 987 
(Wearing a 'capot' or monk's hood) 
the Great
"It is related of Hugh Capet that he refused, from motives either of humility or superstition, to wear the royal crown, except upon the single occasion of his coronation.  He contented himself with the ecclesiastical cope, denoting his quality as lay abbot of St. Martin of Tours."  (Jervis, p. 105)

"Some authors have derived his surname from this circumstance---Capetquasi cappatus.  Others suppose it to refer to the large size of his head."  (Jervis, p. 105)
Bardoul [82] 

the White

Hugues I of Montfort (d.c.1037).
the Bearded

the Pacific

the Well-Loved

Count of La Marche
le Cher

Hugues II of Tours (775–837).
Duke of Alsace
the Distrustful
the Suspicious

Hugues II of Vermandois (1127–1212).
the Monk

Hugues III of Cyprus (1235-1284)
King of Cyprus, 1267; King of Jerusalem, 1268
Hugues I of Jerusalem
Hugues de Poitiers
Hugues de Lusignan, 1267
the Great [79]

"Hugues III, surnamed the Great, had the advantage of coming to the throne as an experienced man of affairs. He reigned for fourteen years, and in that time established the kingdom of Cyprus on a firm basis. He married Isabelle d'Ibelin, and their sons eventually succeeded him.

"Hugues III was not only a soldier and a man of action, he was also a patron of learning and a founder of monasteries...."  (
    the White

    le Chiliarque

    Lord of Lusignan and Couhe, 1026
    the Debonair
    the Fair

    the Brown

    the Brown

    Count of La Marche
    the Old

    Maracdes (Emerald)
    the Brown

    the Brown

    Count of La Marche and Angouleme
    the Brown

    Hugues XII of Lusignan (1237–1282)
    Count of La Marche and Angouleme
    the Brown

    the Whitehanded
    "Now at the very opening of the eleventh century, in 1003, all the historians of the House of Savoy find the first traces of their Humbert the 'White-handed,'---an appellation, by the way, which appears in no contemporary records, and is only first applied to him by the anonymous chroniclers of Savoy in the early part of the fifteenth century...."  (Gallenga, p. 181)
    the Fat
    the Blessed [99]

    Humphrey de Bohun
    2nd Earl of Hereford
    the Good Earl of Hereford

    Humphrey of England (1390-1447)..
    Duke of Gloucester, 1414-1447
    the Father of His Country
    the First English Proponent of Italian Humanism
    the Good
    the Good Duke
     the Good Duke Humphrey
    the Maecenas of His Age
    the Protector
    "...The first great figure in the English Renaissance, he cultivated friendships with literary figures like John Lydgate and the Italian humanists who supplied him with amnuscript books.  He later presented these to Oxford to form the nucleus of the Bodleian library.  He earned his nickname ('Good Duke Humphrey) from his patronage of literature...."  (Houghton Mifflin Co., p. 613)

    "This ill-fated prince was the Maecenas of his age, and to his encouragement of literature England is deeply indebted.  He is supposed to have been the founder of the Bodleian library, and under the patronage which he so readily extended to men of letters, many learned foreigners were induced to settle in England.  His vices were many, but he also possessed some splendid virtues, which cast a redeeming lustre over his character;  his kindliness of disposition won for him the epithet of 'the good;' while his undeviating and impartial justice procured him the still more honourable appellation of 'the father of his country."  (Cunningham, Vol. 1, 0. 380)

    "...A consistent advocate of offensive war, Gloucester won the posthumous sobriquet of 'the Good Duke' for his initiatives in the 1440s.  A patron of poets and writers and an avid collector of manuscripts, Gloucester is also recognized as the first English proponent of Italian humanism."  (Wagner, p. 156)

    Humphrey with the Beard
    the Bearde
    the Old [105]

    the Great
    the Magnificent [100]

    the Saint [107] [108]

    Saint Hyacinth 
    the Apostle of the North [88] [89]

    the Panzer Count [109]

    HYWEL DDA OF WALES (c880-950)
    King of Deheubarth, 920-950 
    Hywel ap Cadell 
    Hywel the Good
    "Legal documents drafted according to the “Laws of Hywel Dda” survive to the present. One remarkable feature of these distinctly Welsh laws is their recognition of the legal status of women and children. Elsewhere in Europe women were regarded merely as the property of their men folk, a status that persisted for centuries.  This helps to explain Hywel’s appeal to later generations, though some historians have questioned how just how “good” he really was.There is evidence the young king ordered the murder of his brother-in-law, Llywarch, in order to take control of Dyfed. His close links with the English crown also aroused the suspicion of some contemporaries.  As John Davies writes in his History of Wales: “In the age of Hywel, the essential attribute of a state builder was ruthlessness”. Ruthlessness was, it seems, an attribute Hywel possessed along the goodness with which history has credited him."  (Welsh Heroes)
    King of Gwynedd

    Farf-fehinog (Fr. Barbe Graisseuse)

    Palgrave, Francis (1851).  The History of Normandy and of England (Vol. 1).  London: J.W. Parker and Son, 1851.

    Doran, John (2005).  Monarchs Retired from Business, Part Two.  Whitefish, MT: Kessinger Publishing.

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